Pioneer Museum

Esperanza’s World – Native American Center – Apache Wars Timeline

Esperanza’s World – Native American Center – Apache Wars Timeline




Activities / Teacher Resources

THE APACHE WARS

  1. The Aravaipa Massacre (April 30, 1871)
    1. Peaceful Western Apaches established a village at Camp Grant
    2. 150 Tucson Vigilantes with Mexicans & Tohono O’odham attacked believing all Apache were evil
    3. 86 to 150, mostly women & children killed / Women raped, children carried to slavery
  2. Outraged, President Grant responded by establishing the Apache Reservation System (1872)
    1. Gen. O.O. Howard established five reservations – 4 in AZ, 1 in NM
    2. Tom Jeffords, Chiricahua agent, with Cochise, kept peace at Apache Pass until Cochise died (1874)
  3. Tonto Basin Campaign under General Crook brought in “hostiles” after 20 clashes killing 200 Apaches
  4. Demoralized Apaches found scarce rations, disease, and boredom on the reservations
    1. The Chiricahua Reservation was consolidated with San Carlos (1875)
    2. Victorio & Geronimo led breakouts from San Carlos to escape to the old life in the Sierra Madre
  5. Victorio – a follower of Mangas Colorado, led Mimbreno Apaches (1877-1880)
    1. Victorio broke out in the hopes of winning a Reservation near Ojo Caliente
    2. Colonel George Buell went after him with Buffalo soldiers and chased him into Mexico
    3. Victorio was killed at the battle of Tres Castillos by an army of 350 Mexicans & Tarahumaras
  6. Nakaidoklini preached the return of dead warriors & protective shirts in a new religion
    1. When dead warriors didn’t return, he said they waited for Apaches to clear Whites from land
    2. Claimed his shirt could protect him from bullets
    3. He was killed when army advanced on Cibecue Creek to put an end to the movement (1881)
  7. Geronimo – a follower of Cochise, led the Chiricahua Apaches (1881-1886)
    1. General Crook & Apache Scouts followed him each time
    2. The First Breakout (1882-1884)
      1. With Juh and Nachise raided San Carlos To avenge Nakaidoklini’s death (1882)
      2. Juh dies and other chiefs surrender and return to San Carlos
    3. The Second breakout (1885) — Over prohibition of Tiswin
    4. The Third Breakout (1886) – heard rumors he would be hung & fled with 24 others
    5. General Miles sent 5,000 soldiers to catch 24 Apaches & he surrendered at Skeleton Canyon
  8. Geronimo, Apaches, & Apache Scouts were exiled to Florida
    1. To Ft. Pickens, Pensacola, FL then to Mt. Vernon Barracks, AL where ¼ died of TB
    2. AZ refused re-entry, but Comanches & Kiowas invite him to Ft. Sill where he died in 1909